"Grant writing" is synonymous with writing grant proposals: The object is to receive funding for a current or future project. Writing grant proposals is an art form. Each grant must be marketable and easy to read, yet precise and detailed at the same time.
Grant writers should have some background in the subject matter of the project in question, and perhaps some technical writing experience as well. Many educational institutions offer courses in grant writing, but professional grant writers don't need to be certified. There are no educational standards currently in place for a certification in grant writing.
Most grant writers are already involved in the organization drafting the grant proposal, either directly as an employee or indirectly as a writer contracted to research, plan, and compose the proposal.
The grant-writing process begins internally with a request for a proposal, called an RFP, that must be approved before the grant-writing process can continue—often a tedious step. Sometimes the RFP is simply an application. After approval, the project's backers must drum up community support and identify funding sources in order to tailor the grant proposal to the individual requirements of the prospective grantor. For example, the requirements of a private organization will be different from the requirements of the federal government, which must adhere to specific regulatory guidelines.
The next step involves gathering information so that the grant writer will be able to refer to it easily. During the entire grant-writing process, it is important not to lose track of notes or any other seemingly extraneous details. Evolving ideas and documentation systems tend to plague the process—a strict organizational system adopted at the beginning will be very helpful later on.