Agricultural Glossary

An agricultural glossary includes terms that scientists, farmers, and others involved in agriculture use on a daily basis.
The definitions can be valuable to anyone, however, because they help provide a better understanding of how this
world works.

AAEA: American Agricultural Economics Association.

Acre-foot: A unit of volume used for water; equals the amount of water that would cover one acre of land one foot deep.

ADG: Average Daily Gain; the amount of weight a farm animal gains in a single day.

AI: Artificial Insemination; the way humans impregnate animals through scientific means.

Annual: A type of flower or plant that lives for only one year.

AUM: Animal Unit Month; the amount of land a cow needs to graze in a single month.

Barrow: A male pig that has been castrated before reaching maturity.

BFP: Basic Formula Price; the way in which the U.S. Department of Agriculture determines the price of milk and cheese.

Biological control: The way in which scientists stop insects from reproducing.

Breeding stock: Animals kept for the sole purpose of reproducing.

Brush: Plant life that has no commercial use.

BST: Bovine somatotropin hormone; used to increase growth and milk production in cows.

Calf crop: The number of calves a certain group of cows gives birth to in a certain year.

Chisel: A sharp tool used to break through hard layers of ground.

Clean Air Act: A federal law designed to limit air pollution.

Clearcut harvest: The removal of all trees in an area in order to increase the growth of new plant life.

Combine: A thrashing machine used to clear or harvest crops.

Cord: A unit of measurement used for wood.

Crossbreeding: The process of causing two different breeds of the same species to mate and produce offspring.

Deciduous: A type of tree that sheds its leaves before the colder months.

Dowsing: The process of using a rod to search for underground water sources.

Drip irrigation: The use of pipes to bring water into contact with the roots of plants.

Dryland farming: The process of farming using natural rain showers rather than irrigation.

Environmental impact statement: A document that explains how a given project may affect the environment.

Ephemeral stream: A stream that doesn't flow constantly, and normally flows only after precipitation.

Fed cattle: Cattle sent to the slaughterhouse.

Feedlot: A building where cattle are kept solely for trade.

Field corn: Corn raised for cattle feed.

Futures contract: A contract between a seller and buyer, dependent upon a specific price and type of product.

Gelding: An adult male horse that has been castrated.

Heifer: A young female cow.

Insecticide: A type of chemical used to kill insects.

Milking parlor: A building where cows are milked using a vacuum process.

NAA: National Aquacultural Act.

Net farm income: The amount of income a farm earns in a year, after paying production costs.

Oil seed crops: Crops such as peanuts and soybeans that are used for creating oils.

Pasteurization: The process of heating milk to a certain temperature to remove pathogens.

Perennial: A type of flower or plant with a life span of at least two years.

Protein supplement: A supplement given to an animal as part of a balanced diet.

Rotation: The method of using the same piece of land for different crops every year, in order to prevent crops from
dying due to depleted soil nutrients.

Row crops: Crops that are planted in rows, leaving space for machinery.

Safe Drinking Water Act: An act that holds farmers responsible for the cleanliness of their water.

Section: One square mile of surveyed land.

Seedstock: Animals, usually ones with pedigrees, that are kept solely for breeding.

Sire: The father of a certain animal.

Sow: A hog that has already been pregnant.

Stallion: A sexually mature male horse.

Total mixed ration: A ration given to animals to ensure they get all the nutrients they need.

VAT: Value Added Tax.

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